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Women in Development Network (WIDNET)
Promoting Gender Equality & Equity

 

Education - Tertiary Education

Tertiary gross enrolment ratio, by sex
Women's share of tertiary enrolment

Table 4d. Tertiary education
Last update: December 2012
      Tertiary gross enrolment ratio         Women's share of tertiary enrolment
Country or area Year   Women Men   Year   %
Afghanistan 2009   1   5     2009   18
Albania 2004   22   14     2004   62
Algeria 2010   37   25     2010   58
Andorra 2008   13   9     2008   58
Angola 2010   3   4     2010   45
Anguilla 2008 a 8   2     2008   83
Antigua and Barbuda 2010   23   9     2010   74
Argentina 2009   86   57     2009   60
Armenia 2010   58   45     2010   56
Aruba 2010   35   27     2010   57
Australia 2010   92   68     2010   56
Austria 2009   65   55     2009   53
Azerbaijan 2010 b 19   19     2010   49
Bahrain 1999 a 28   16     2010   46
Bangladesh 2009   8   13     2009   37
Barbados 2010   95   40     2010   69
Belarus 2010   98   69     2010   58
Belgium 2009   75   60     2009   55
Belize 2010   26   17     2010   62
Benin 2009   6   15     2009   28
Bermuda 2010   27   13     2010   67
Bhutan 2011   7   10     2011   40
Bolivia (Plurinational State of) 2007 b 35   42     2007 b 45
Bosnia and Herzegovina 2010   42   32     2010   56
Botswana 2006   8   7     2006   53
Brazil 2005   29   22     2010   57
British Virgin Islands 2009 a 79   48     2009   65
Brunei Darussalam 2010   22   12     2010   63
Bulgaria 2010   65   49     2010   56
Burkina Faso 2011   3   5     2011   33
Burundi 2010   2   4     2010   35
Cambodia 2008   5   10     2008   34
Cameroon 2010   10   13     2010   45
Canada 2002   69   51     2002   56
Cape Verde 2010   20   16     2010   55
Cayman Islands 2008   42   19     2008   69
Central African Republic 2010   1   4     2010   25
Chad 2010 a 1   4     2010 a 15
Chile 2009   61   57     2009   51
China 2010   27   25     2010   50
China, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region 2010 b 61   58     2010 b 51
China, Macao Special Administrative Region 2010   64   65     2010   51
Colombia 2010   41   37     2010   52
Comoros 2010   7   9     2010   42
Congo 2009   2   11     2009   17
Costa Rica 2005 a 29   23     2005 a 54
Côte d'Ivoire 2007   6   12     2007   33
Croatia 2010   62   46     2010   56
Cuba 2010   119   72     2010   61
Cyprus 2010 b 51   59     2010   46
Czech Republic 2009   71   51     2009   56
Democratic Republic of the Congo 2009   3   9     2009   24
Denmark 2009   88   61     2009   58
Djibouti 2011   4   6     2011   40
Dominica 2008   6   2     2008   76
Dominican Republic 2004 a 42   26     2004 a 61
Ecuador 2008   43   37     2008   53
Egypt 2010   31   34     2010   47
El Salvador 2010   25   22     2010   54
Equatorial Guinea 2000   2   5     2000   30
Eritrea 2010   1   3     2010   25
Estonia 2009   79   47     2009   62
Ethiopia 2010   3   8     2010   27
Fiji 2005 a 18   15     2005 a 53
Finland 2010   103   85     2010   54
France 2009   61   48     2009   55
Gabon 1999   5   9     1999   36
Gambia 2004   -   2     2004   19
Georgia 2010   31   25     2010   55
Ghana 2011   9   15     2011   37
Greece 2007   94   85     2007   50
Grenada 2009   61   45     2009   57
Guatemala 2007   18   18     2007   51
Guinea 2008   5   14     2008   24
Guinea-Bissau 2001 a -   1     2001 a 16
Guyana 2010   17   7     2010   71
Holy See         1998   30
Honduras 2008 b 23   15     2008 b 60
Hungary 2009   71   52     2009   57
Iceland 2009   97   52     2009   64
India 2010   15   21     2010   40
Indonesia 2010   22   24     2010   47
Iran (Islamic Republic of) 2010   43   43     2010   49
Iraq 2005 a 12   20     2005 a 36
Ireland 2009   67   55     2009   54
Israel 2009   71   55     2009   56
Italy 2009   77   55     2009   58
Jamaica 2010   41   18     2010   69
Japan 2010   56   63     2010   46
Jordan 2010   41   35     2010   52
Kazakhstan 2011   48   33     2011   58
Kenya 2009   3   5     2009   41
Kuwait 2004 a 31   14     2004 a 64
Kyrgyzstan 2009   55   42     2009   56
Lao People's Democratic Republic 2010   14   19     2010   43
Latvia 2010   77   44     2010   63
Lebanon 2010   59   49     2010   54
Lesotho 2006   4   3     2006   55
Liberia 2000   14   24     2000   35
Libya 2003 a 57   52     2003 a 51
Liechtenstein 2010 b 27   44     2010   37
Lithuania 2010   90   59     2010   59
Luxembourg 2008   10   11     2008   48
Madagascar 2010   4   4     2010   48
Malawi 2010   1   1     2010   38
Malaysia 2009   45   35     2009   56
Maldives 2008   13   12     2008   51
Mali 2011   4   8     2011   31
Malta 2010   41   30     2010   56
Marshall Islands 2003 a 18   14     2003 a 56
Mauritania 2010   3   6     2010   28
Mauritius 2008 a 28   22     2008 a 55
Mexico 2010   28   28     2010   50
Mongolia 2010   65   42     2010   60
Montenegro 2010   53   43     2010   54
Montserrat         2010   85
Morocco 2009   12   14     2009   47
Mozambique 2005   1   2     2005   33
Myanmar 2007   13   9     2007   58
Namibia 2008   10   8     2008   57
Nepal 2004   3   8     2010   41
Netherlands 2009   66   59     2009   52
Netherlands Antilles 2002   25   17     2002   60
New Zealand 2010   99   67     2010   58
Nicaragua 2003 a 19   17     2003 a 52
Niger 2011   1   2     2011   30
Nigeria 2005   9   12     2005   41
Norway 2010   93   57     2010   61
Occupied Palestinian Territory 2010   58   43     2010   56
Oman 2010   29   21     2010   50
Pakistan 2008 b 5   6     2008 b 45
Palau 2002 a 52   26     2002 a 63
Panama 2009   54   35     2009   60
Papua New Guinea 1999 a 1   2     1999 a 35
Paraguay 2009   43   30     2009   58
Peru 2010   45   41     2010   52
Philippines 2008   32   26     2008   54
Poland 2009   83   58     2009   58
Portugal 2009   68   57     2009   53
Puerto Rico 2010   103   70     2010   59
Qatar 2010   26   5     2010   63
Republic of Korea 2010   86   119     2010   39
Republic of Moldova 2010 b 44   33     2010   56
Romania 2010   68   50     2010   56
Russian Federation 2009   87   65     2009   57
Rwanda 2010   5   6     2010   44
Saint Kitts and Nevis 2008   25   12     2008   67
Saint Lucia 2010   16   6     2010   72
Samoa 2001 a 7   8     2001 a 44
San Marino         2010   58
Sao Tome and Principe 2010   4   5     2010   49
Saudi Arabia 2010   39   35     2010   52
Senegal 2010 a 6   10     2010 a 37
Serbia 2010 b 56   43     2010   55
Sierra Leone 2002 a 1   3     2002 a 29
Singapore         2010   50
Slovakia 2009   67   42     2010   60
Slovenia 2009   103   71     2009   58
Spain 2009   81   66     2009   54
Sri Lanka 2010   20   11     2010   65
Sudan (pre-secession) 2000 a 6   6     2000 a 47
Suriname 2002   15   9     2002   62
Swaziland 2006   4   4     2006   50
Sweden 2010   90   58     2010   59
Switzerland 2010   55   55     2010   49
Tajikistan 2010   11   28     2010   29
TFYR of Macedonia 2010   42   36     2010   53
Thailand 2011   54   41     2011   56
Timor-Leste 2009   14   19     2009   40
Togo 1998   1   6     1998   17
Tonga 2004 a 8   5     2004 a 60
Trinidad and Tobago 2005 a 13   10     2005 a 56
Tunisia 2009   41   28     2009   60
Turkey 2009   40   51     2009   44
Turks and Caicos Islands 2008 a -   -     2008   50
Uganda 2009   4   5     2009   44
Ukraine 2010   89   71     2010   54
United Arab Emirates 2003 a 39   12     2009   60
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 2009   69   49     2009   57
United Republic of Tanzania 2010   2   2     2010   45
United States of America 2010   111   79     2010   57
Uruguay 2009   81   46     2009   63
Uzbekistan 2011   7   11     2011   39
Vanuatu 2004 a 3   6     2004 a 36
Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of) 2008 b 99   58     2008 b 62
Viet Nam 2010   22   22     2010   49
Yemen 2007   6   14     2007   29
Zambia 2000 a 2   3     2000 a 32
Zimbabwe 2010   5   7     2010   45
                     

 

Footnotes
a UIS Estimation.
b National Estimation.
_ Magnitude nil or negligible.
Data not available.
   
Sources:
Gross enrolment ratio in tertiary education 
UNESCO Institute for Statistics, table 14: Tertiary indicators, available from UIS website, http://www.uis.unesco.org.
Women’s share of tertiary enrolment
UNESCO Institute for Statistics, table 14: Tertiary indicators, available from UIS website, http://www.uis.unesco.org.
 

Technical notes:

Statistics on enrolment are compiled by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics (UIS) from data provided by national Governments in response to UIS questionnaires.
The 1997 International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED 97) defines tertiary education as education programmes at ISCED levels 5 and 6. Education at ISCED level 5 includes programmes that are theoretically based or research preparatory (history, philosophy, mathematics, etc.) or giving access to professions with high skills requirements (e.g., medicine, dentistry, architecture, etc.), and those programmes that are practical, technical or occupationally specific. Level 6 are tertiary programmes that lead to the award of an advanced research qualification. The programmes are therefore devoted to advanced study and original research and are not based on course-work only.
The tertiary gross enrolment ratio is defined as enrolment at third level, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population in the theoretical school age group corresponding to this level of education. For the tertiary level, the population is the five-year age group following on from the secondary-school leaving age. The tertiary gross enrolment ratio is used to show the general level of participation in this level of education.
The women’s share of tertiary enrolment refers to the percentage of students enrolled in tertiary education who are female. This indicator helps assess gender disparity with regard to participation in tertiary education. When the indicator approaches 50% it reflects a good level of gender parity.


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