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Health - Maternal Mortality and Infant Mortality 

Maternal mortality ratio
Infant mortality rate
Under 5 mortality rate
Table 2b. Maternal mortality and infant mortality
Last updated: December 2012
    Maternal mortality ratio   Infant mortality rate Under 5 mortality rate 
     
Country or area Year Estimate Range   Year   Total Total
Afghanistan 2010 460   [250-850]   2010-2015   125   184
Albania 2010 27   [17-43]   2010-2015   17   19
Algeria 2010 97   [50-180]   2010-2015   21   27
American Samoa … …   …   2006-2008 * 11   …
Angola 2010 450   [210-1000]   2010-2015   96   156
Argentina 2010 77   [67-87]   2010-2015   12   14
Armenia 2010 30   [20-46]   2010-2015   24   27
Aruba … …   …   2010-2015   15   17
Australia1 2010 7   [4-12]   2010-2015   4   5
Austria 2010 4   [3-7]   2010-2015   4   5
Azerbaijan2 2010 43   [27-67]   2010-2015   38   43
Bahamas 2010 47   [28-75]   2010-2015   14   18
Bahrain 2010 20   [12-32]   2010-2015   7   9
Bangladesh 2010 240   [140-410]   2010-2015   42   51
Barbados 2010 51   [19-140]   2010-2015   12   14
Belarus 2010 4   [3-5]   2010-2015   6   9
Belgium 2010 8   [5-12]   2010-2015   4   5
Belize 2010 53   [33-88]   2010-2015   16   21
Benin 2010 350   [220-600]   2010-2015   77   121
Bhutan 2010 180   [95-320]   2010-2015   38   52
Bolivia (Plurinational State of) 2010 190   [130-290]   2010-2015   41   54
Bosnia and Herzegovina 2010 8   [5-14]   2010-2015   13   16
Botswana 2010 160   [81-260]   2010-2015   35   46
Brazil 2010 56   [36-85]   2010-2015   19   24
Brunei Darussalam 2010 24   [15-40]   2010-2015   5   6
Bulgaria 2010 11   [8-15]   2010-2015   9   11
Burkina Faso 2010 300   [190-520]   2010-2015   71   147
Burundi 2010 800   [370-1800]   2010-2015   94   152
Cambodia 2010 250   [160-390]   2010-2015   53   69
Cameroon 2010 690   [430-1200]   2010-2015   85   136
Canada 2010 12   [9-16]   2010-2015   5   6
Cape Verde 2010 79   [33-190]   2010-2015   18   22
Central African Republic 2010 890   [530-1700]   2010-2015   96   155
Chad 2010 1100   [640-2000]   2010-2015   124   195
Channel Islands 3 … …   …   2010-2015   8   9
Chile 2010 25   [21-29]   2010-2015   7   8
China 4 2010 37   [23-58]   2010-2015   20   24
China, Hong Kong SAR 5 … …   …   2010-2015   2   3
China, Macao SAR 6 … …   …   2010-2015   4   5
Colombia 2010 92   [80-100]   2010-2015   17   23
Comoros 2010 280   [120-680]   2010-2015   63   86
Congo 2010 560   [320-1100]   2010-2015   67   104
Cook Islands … …   …   2005-2009 * 12   …
Costa Rica 2010 40   [31-50]   2010-2015   9   11
Cτte d'Ivoire 2010 400   [260-680]   2010-2015   69   107
Croatia 2010 17   [10-29]   2010-2015   6   7
Cuba 2010 73   [60-87]   2010-2015   5   6
Cyprus 7 2010 10   [4-23]   2010-2015   4   5
Czech Republic 2010 5   [4-8]   2010-2015   3   4
Democratic People's Republic of Korea 2010 81   [36-180]   2010-2015   25   32
Democratic Republic of the Congo 2010 540   [300-1100]   2010-2015   109   180
Denmark 2010 12   [7-23]   2010-2015   4   5
Djibouti 2010 200   [100-410]   2010-2015   75   104
Dominican Republic 2010 150   [100-210]   2010-2015   22   28
Ecuador 2010 110   [62-180]   2010-2015   19   23
Egypt 2010 66   [40-100]   2010-2015   22   25
El Salvador 2010 81   [55-120]   2010-2015   19   23
Equatorial Guinea 2010 240   [120-510]   2010-2015   93   151
Eritrea 2010 240   [130-460]   2010-2015   48   62
Estonia 2010 2   [1-4]   2010-2015   4   7
Ethiopia 2010 350   [210-630]   2010-2015   63   96
Fiji 2010 26   [15-48]   2010-2015   17   22
Finland 8 2010 5   [3-8]   2010-2015   3   3
France 2010 8   [7-10]   2010-2015   3   4
French Guiana … …   …   2010-2015   13   15
French Polynesia … …   …   2010-2015   7   10
Gabon 2010 230   [130-390]   2010-2015   44   64
Gambia 2010 360   [170-820]   2010-2015   66   93
Georgia 9 2010 67   [43-110]   2010-2015   26   27
Germany 2010 7   [6-9]   2010-2015   3   4
Ghana 2010 350   [210-630]   2010-2015   44   63
Greece 2010 3   [2-5]   2010-2015   4   5
Grenada 2010 24   [15-38]   2010-2015   13   15
Guadeloupe 10 … …   …   2010-2015   7   8
Guam … …   …   2010-2015   8   10
Guatemala 2010 120   [110-140]   2010-2015   26   34
Guinea 2010 610   [380-1100]   2010-2015   84   134
Guinea-Bissau 2010 790   [370-1900]   2010-2015   110   181
Guyana 2010 280   [180-430]   2010-2015   37   46
Haiti 2010 350   [210-610]   2010-2015   58   76
Honduras 2010 100   [64-160]   2010-2015   24   33
Hungary 2010 21   [15-31]   2010-2015   5   7
Iceland 2010 5   [3-9]   2010-2015   2   3
India 2010 200   [140-310]   2010-2015   48   65
Indonesia 2010 220   [130-350]   2010-2015   25   31
Iran (Islamic Republic of) 2010 21   [15-30]   2010-2015   23   31
Iraq 2010 63   [34-120]   2010-2015   33   41
Ireland 2010 6   [3-12]   2010-2015   4   4
Israel 2010 7   [5-10]   2010-2015   3   4
Italy 2010 4   [3-5]   2010-2015   3   4
Jamaica 2010 110   [77-170]   2010-2015   22   26
Japan 2010 5   [5-6]   2010-2015   3   3
Jordan 2010 63   [37-110]   2010-2015   19   22
Kazakhstan 2010 51   [44-58]   2010-2015   24   29
Kenya 2010 360   [230-590]   2010-2015   58   89
Kiribati … …   …   2003 * 52   …
Kuwait 2010 14   [8-23]   2010-2015   8   10
Kyrgyzstan 2010 71   [44-110]   2010-2015   33   42
Lao People's Democratic Republic 2010 470   [260-840]   2010-2015   37   46
Latvia 2010 34   [22-55]   2010-2015   7   8
Lebanon 2010 25   [14-45]   2010-2015   20   24
Lesotho 2010 620   [370-970]   2010-2015   62   89
Liberia 2010 770   [430-1500]   2010-2015   77   107
Libya 2010 58   [25-130]   2010-2015   13   15
Lithuania 2010 8   [5-12]   2010-2015   6   9
Luxembourg 2010 20   [4-93]   2010-2015   2   3
Madagascar 2010 240   [160-400]   2010-2015   41   58
Malawi 2010 460   [290-710]   2010-2015   86   119
Malaysia 11 2010 29   [12-64]   2010-2015   7   9
Maldives 2010 60   [35-99]   2010-2015   8   12
Mali 2010 540   [350-930]   2010-2015   92   173
Malta 2010 8   [5-14]   2010-2015   5   7
Marshall Islands … …   …   2003-2007 * 21   …
Martinique … …   …   2010-2015   7   8
Mauritania 2010 510   [280-990]   2010-2015   70   106
Mauritius 12 2010 60   [39-91]   2010-2015   12   15
Mayotte … …   …   2010-2015   6   6
Mexico 2010 50   [44-56]   2010-2015   14   17
Micronesia (Fed. States of) 2010 100   [44-230]   2010-2015   31   38
Mongolia 2010 63   [27-140]   2010-2015   31   37
Montenegro 2010 8   [5-14]   2010-2015   8   9
Morocco 2010 100   [62-170]   2010-2015   29   31
Mozambique 2010 490   [300-850]   2010-2015   78   123
Myanmar 2010 200   [120-330]   2010-2015   45   57
Namibia 2010 200   [100-320]   2010-2015   30   39
Nauru … …   …   2006-2007 * 46   …
Nepal 2010 170   [100-290]   2010-2015   32   39
Netherlands 2010 6   [4-7]   2010-2015   4   5
Netherlands Antilles 13 … …   …   2010-2015   12   14
New Caledonia … …   …   2010-2015   5   7
New Zealand 2010 15   [9-26]   2010-2015   5   6
Nicaragua 2010 95   [54-170]   2010-2015   18   22
Niger 2010 590   [360-1100]   2010-2015   86   144
Nigeria 2010 630   [370-1200]   2010-2015   88   141
Niue … …   …   2001-2006 * 8   …
Northern Mariana Islands … …   …   2006-2008 * 5   …
Norway 14 2010 7   [4-12]   2010-2015   3   4
Occupied Palestinian Territory 15 2010 64   [28-150]   2010-2015   20   22
Oman 2010 32   [19-51]   2010-2015   8   11
Pakistan 2010 260   [150-500]   2010-2015   66   86
Palau … …   …   2004-2006 * 20   …
Panama 2010 92   [75-110]   2010-2015   16   21
Papua New Guinea 2010 230   [100-510]   2010-2015   44   58
Paraguay 2010 99   [60-160]   2010-2015   27   33
Peru 2010 67   [42-110]   2010-2015   18   28
Philippines 2010 99   [66-140]   2010-2015   21   27
Poland 2010 5   [4-6]   2010-2015   6   7
Portugal 2010 8   [5-11]   2010-2015   4   5
Puerto Rico 2010 20   [13-31]   2010-2015   7   9
Qatar 2010 7   [3-16]   2010-2015   8   10
Republic of Korea 2010 16   [13-19]   2010-2015   4   5
Republic of Moldova 16 2010 41   [32-55]   2010-2015   14   19
Rιunion … …   …   2010-2015   6   6
Romania 2010 27   [23-32]   2010-2015   12   15
Russian Federation 2010 34   [26-42]   2010-2015   11   16
Rwanda 2010 340   [200-590]   2010-2015   93   114
Saint Lucia 2010 35   [22-54]   2010-2015   12   16
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 2010 48   [30-78]   2010-2015   21   25
Samoa 2010 100   [47-230]   2010-2015   20   24
Sao Tome and Principe 2010 70   [38-140]   2010-2015   47   69
Saudi Arabia 2010 24   [13-45]   2010-2015   16   19
Senegal 2010 370   [230-640]   2010-2015   50   85
Serbia 17 2010 12   [9-17]   2010-2015   11   13
Sierra Leone 2010 890   [510-1700]   2010-2015   103   157
Singapore 2010 3   [2-7]   2010-2015   2   2
Slovakia 2010 6   [4-10]   2010-2015   6   7
Slovenia 2010 12   [5-30]   2010-2015   3   4
Solomon Islands 2010 93   [41-220]   2010-2015   35   43
Somalia 2010 1000   [460-2400]   2010-2015   100   162
South Africa 2010 300   [150-500]   2010-2015   46   64
Spain 18 2010 6   [4-7]   2010-2015   4   4
Sri Lanka 2010 35   [25-49]   2010-2015   11   13
Sudan 19 2010 730   [380-1400]   2010-2015   57   87
Suriname 2010 130   [89-190]   2010-2015   20   27
Swaziland 2010 320   [160-670]   2010-2015   65   92
Sweden 2010 4   [2-7]   2010-2015   3   3
Switzerland 2010 8   [4-15]   2010-2015   4   5
Syrian Arab Republic 2010 70   [41-110]   2010-2015   14   16
Tajikistan 2010 65   [29-150]   2010-2015   51   65
TFYR Macedonia 20 2010 10   [3-31]   2010-2015   13   15
Thailand 2010 48   [33-70]   2010-2015   11   13
Timor-Leste 2010 300   [160-560]   2010-2015   56   76
Togo 2010 300   [180-530]   2010-2015   67   104
Tokelau … …   …   2000-2003 * 31   …
Tonga 2010 110   [50-260]   2010-2015   21   25
Trinidad and Tobago 2010 46   [26-84]   2010-2015   24   31
Tunisia 2010 56   [29-110]   2010-2015   18   23
Turkey 2010 20   [13-32]   2010-2015   20   23
Turkmenistan 2010 67   [29-150]   2010-2015   49   62
Tuvalu … …   …   2006-2008 * 17   …
Uganda 2010 310   [200-500]   2010-2015   72   114
Ukraine 2010 32   [24-43]   2010-2015   12   15
United Arab Emirates 2010 12   [5-27]   2010-2015   7   8
United Kingdom 2010 12   [10-14]   2010-2015   5   6
United Republic of Tanzania 21 2010 460   [190-740]   2010-2015   54   81
United States of America 2010 21   [18-23]   2010-2015   6   8
United States Virgin Islands … …   …   2010-2015   10   12
Uruguay 2010 29   [21-39]   2010-2015   12   15
Uzbekistan 2010 28   [23-34]   2010-2015   44   53
Vanuatu 2010 110   [46-240]   2010-2015   24   29
Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of) 2010 92   [78-110]   2010-2015   15   20
Viet Nam 2010 59   [27-130]   2010-2015   18   23
Wallis and Futuna Islands … …   …   2005-2008 * 5   …
Western Sahara … …   …   2010-2015   36   45
Yemen 2010 200   [110-370]   2010-2015   44   57
Zambia 2010 440   [220-790]   2010-2015   81   130
Zimbabwe 2010 570   [320-920]   2010-2015   47   71
                   


Footnotes
… Not available.
* Data are published by the Secretariat of the Pacific Community. 
1 Including Christmas Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands, and Norfolk Island.
2 Including Nagorno-Karabakh.
3 Refers to Guernsey, and Jersey.
4 For statistical purposes, the data for China do not include Hong Kong and Macao, Special Administrative Regions (SAR) of China.
5 As of 1 July 1997, Hong Kong became a Special Administrative Region (SAR) of China.
6 As of 20 December 1999, Macao became a Special Administrative Region (SAR) of China.
7 Including Northern-Cyprus.
8 Including Εland Islands.
9 Including Abkhazia and South Ossetia.
10 Including Saint-Barthιlemy and Saint-Martin (French part).
11 Including Sabah and Sarawak.
12 Including Agalega, Rodrigues, and Saint Brandon.
13 Refers to Curaηao, Sint Maarten (Dutch part), Bonaire, Saba and Sint Eustatius.
14 Including Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands.
15 Including East Jerusalem.
16 Including Transnistria.
17 Including Kosovo.
18 Including Canary Islands, Ceuta and Melilla.
19 Including Southern Sudan which voted in favor of independence, but was not an official UN Member State as of May 2011.
20 The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia.
21 Including Zanzibar.
   


Sources:
Estimated maternal mortality ratio
Estimates developed by the World Health Organization http://apps.who.int/ghodata.
Infant mortality rate
United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division (2011), World Population Prospects: The 2010 Revision. available in http://esa.un.org/unpd/wpp/Excel-Data/mortality.htm; supplemented by official national statistics published in United Nations Demographic Yearbook, available from the United Nations Statistics Division website, http://unstats.un.org/unsd/demographic/products/dyb/default.htm; and data compiled by the Secretariat of the Pacific Community (SPC) Statistics and Demography Programme, available from the SPC website, http://www.spc.int/sdp.
Under 5 mortality rate
United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division (2011), World Population Prospects: The 2010 Revision. available in http://esa.un.org/unpd/wpp/Excel-Data/mortality.htm.
 

Technical notes:

The maternal mortality ratio (MMR) is the annual number of female deaths from any cause related to or aggravated by pregnancy or its management (excluding accidental or incidental causes) during pregnancy and childbirth or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy, irrespective of the duration and site of the pregnancy, per 100,000 live births, for a specified year.
WHO, UNICEF, UNFPA and The World Bank have developed a method to adjust existing data in order to take into account these data quality issues and ensure the comparability of different data sources. This method involves assessment of data for completeness and, where necessary, adjustment for underreporting and misclassification of deaths as well as development of estimates through statistical modeling for countries with no reliable national level data.
Data on maternal mortality and other relevant variables are obtained through databases maintained by WHO, UNPD, UNICEF, and WB. Data available from countries varies in terms of the source and methods. Given the variability of the sources of data, different methods are used for each data source in order to arrive at country estimates that are comparable and permit regional and global aggregation.
Infant mortality rate is the total number of infants dying before reaching the age of one year per 1,000 live births in a given year. It is an approximation of the number of deaths per 1,000 children born alive who die within one year of birth.
Estimates and projections of the infant mortality rate are prepared every two years by the Population Division of the United Nations Secretariat from data compiled by the Population Division and Statistics Division from national statistical sources. The best source of data to compute the infant mortality rate is a civil registration system covering at least 90 percent of births and deaths in a country or area. As many developing countries lack complete and reliable statistics of births and deaths based on civil registration, various estimation techniques are used to calculate the indicator from population censuses and demographic surveys.
 


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