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Women in Development Network (WIDNET)
Promoting Gender Equality & Equity

 

 Europe
** Labour ** 

 

  1. Percentage of women in the active population (1970 & 1990) 
    • Eastern Europe: 44 % (1970) ; 48 % (1990)
    • Western Europe: 33 % (1970) ; 42 % (1990) 
      Sources: Bureau International du Travail (Nations Unies)

  2. Distribution in percentage of female and male active population by sector of activity (1994) 
    • Eastern Europe:
      Agriculture : women: 17 % ; men: 20 %
      Industry: women: 35 % ; men: 45 %
      Services: women: 48 % ; men: 35 %
    • Western Europe:
      Agriculture : women: 7 % ; men: 7 %
      Industry: women: 20 % ; men: 43 %
      Services: women: 73 % ; men: 50 %
      Sources: Bureau International du Travail (Nations Unies)

  3. Rate of boys and girls' participation in active population, 10-14 years old (1990) 
    • Europe: ... % (girls) ; ... % (boys)
      Sources: Bureau International du Travail (Nations Unies)

  4. Women's Share in the main professional categories (1990) 
    • Eastern Europe:
      Professionals and technicians: 56 %
      Administration and management personnel: 33 %
      Office clerks and similar: 73 %
      Sales force: 66 %
      Production and tranportations, operators and manual workers: 27 %
    • Western Europe:
      Professionals and technicians: 50 %
      Administration and management personnel: 18 %
      Office clerks and similar: 63 %
      Sales force: 48 %
      Production and tranportations, operators and manual workers: 16 %
      Sources: Women's Indicators and Statistics Database (Nations Unies)

  5. Percentage of women (15 years old and more) in the total active population (1994) 
    • ALBANIA: 40 %
    • AUSTRIA: 39 %
    • BELARUS: 47 %
    • BELGIUM: 33 %
    • BOSNIA: 38 %
    • BULGARIA: 48 %
    • CROATIA: 44 %
    • CZECK REPUBLIC: 48 %
    • DENMARK: 44 %
    • ESTONIA: 46 %
    • FINLAND: 47 %
    • FRANCE: 41 %
    • GERMANY: 39 %
    • GREECE: 27 %
    • HUNGARIA: 44 %
    • IRELAND: 29 %
    • ISLAND: 43 %
    • ITALY: 32 %
    • LATVIA: 47 %
    • LIECHTENSTEIN: ...%
    • LITHUANIA: 45 %
    • LUXEMBURG: 32 %
    • MALTA: 23 %
    • MOLDOVA: 48 %
    • MONACO: ...%
    • NETHERLANDS: 31 %
    • NORWAY: 41 %
    • POLAND: 45 %
    • PORTUGAL: 36 %
    • ROMANIA: 45 %
    • RUSSIA: 45 %
    • SAN MARINO: 41 %
    • SLOVAKIA: 47 %
    • SLOVENIA: 50 %
    • SPAIN: 25 %
    • SWEDEN: 44 %
    • SWITZERLAND: 35 %
    • UKRANIA: 46 %
    • UNITED KINGDOM: 39 %
    • YUGOSLAVIA: 42 %
      Sources: Bureau International du Travail (Nations Unies)

  6. Distribution of the active population (1994) 
    • ALBANIA:
      Agriculture: women: 57 %; men: 48 %
      Industry: women: 20 % ; men: 29 %
      Services: women: 23 % ; men: 23 %
    • AUSTRIA:
      Agriculture: women: 3 %; men: 3 %
      Industry: women: 23 % ; men: 50 %
      Services: women: 74 % ; men: 47 %
    • BELARUS:
      Agriculture: women: 13 %; men: 26 %
      Industry: women: 36 % ; men: 45 %
      Services: women: 51 % ; men: 29 %
    • BELGIUM:
      Agriculture: women: 2 %; men: 2 %
      Industry: women: 22 % ; men: 44 %
      Services: women: 77 % ; men: 54 %
    • BOSNIA:
      Agriculture: women: 11 %; men: 5 %
      Industry: women: 39 % ; men: 56 %
      Services: women: 50 % ; men: 39 %
    • BULGARIA:
      Agriculture: women: 12 %; men: 12 %
      Industry: women: 43 % ; men: 55 %
      Services: women: 46 % ; men: 33 %
    • CROATIA:
      Agriculture: women: 13 %; men: 15 %
      Industry: women: 29 % ; men: 38 %
      Services: women: 58 % ; men: 46 %
    • CZECK REPUBLIC:
      Agriculture: women: 9 %; men: 13 %
      Industry: women: 37 % ; men: 54 %
      Services: women: 55 % ; men: 33 %
    • DENMARK:
      Agriculture: women: 1 %; men: 6 %
      Industry: women: 15 % ; men: 40 %
      Services: women: 84 % ; men: 54 %
    • ESTONIA:
      Agriculture: women: 11 %; men: 18 %
      Industry: women: 34 % ; men: 49 %
      Services: women: 55 % ; men: 33 %
    • FINLAND:
      Agriculture: women: 4 %; men: 4 %
      Industry: women: 20 % ; men: 47 %
      Services: women: 76 % ; men: 48 %
    • FRANCE:
      Agriculture: women: 3 %; men: 4 %
      Industry: women: 20 % ; men: 46 %
      Services: women: 77 % ; men: 49 %
    • GERMANY:
      Agriculture: women: 6 %; men:5 %
      Industry: women: 33 % ; men: 54 %
      Services: women: 60 % ; men: 40 %
    • GREECE:
      Agriculture: women: 27 %; men: 16 %
      Industry: women: 19 % ; men: 36 %
      Services: women: 53 % ; men: 48 %
    • HUNGARIA:
      Agriculture: women: 10 %; men: 19 %
      Industry: women: 32 % ; men: 43 %
      Services: women: 58 % ; men: 39 %
    • IRELAND:
      Agriculture: women: 2 %; men: 14 %
      Industry: women: 20 % ; men: 44 %
      Services: women: 78 % ; men: 42 %
    • ISLAND:
      Agriculture: women: 2 %; men: 6 %
      Industry: women: 23 % ; men: 48 %
      Services: women: 75 % ; men: 46 %
    • ITALY:
      Agriculture: women: 6 %; men: 4 %
      Industry: women: 26 % ; men: 43 %
      Services: women: 68 % ; men: 53 %
    • LATVIA:
      Agriculture: women: 12 %; men: 19 %
      Industry: women: 33 % ; men: 47 %
      Services: women: 55 % ; men: 34 %
    • LIECHTENSTEIN:
      Agriculture: women: ... %; men: ...%
      Industry: women: ...% ; men: ... %
      Services: women: ... % ; men: ... %
    • LITHUANIA:
      Agriculture: women: 10 %; men: 23 %
      Industry: women: 35 % ; men: 47 %
      Services: women: 55 % ; men: 30 %
    • LUXEMBURG:
      Agriculture: women: 4 %; men: 2 %
      Industry: women: 9 % ; men: 37 %
      Services: women: 87 % ; men: 60 %
    • MALTA:
      Agriculture: women: 4 %; men: 3 %
      Industry: women: 15 % ; men: 49 %
      Services: women: 81 % ; men: 47 %
    • MOLDOVA:
      Agriculture: women: 25 %; men: 37 %
      Industry: women: 27 % ; men: 34 %
      Services: women: 48 % ; men: 29 %
    • MONACO:
      Agriculture: women: ... %; men: ...%
      Industry: women: ... % ; men: ...%
      Services: women: ...% ; men: ... %
    • NETHERLANDS:
      Agriculture: women: 2 %; men: 5 %
      Industry: women: 8 % ; men: 32 %
      Services: women: 90 % ; men: 62 %
    • NORWAY:
      Agriculture: women: 5 %; men: 6 %
      Industry: women: 8 % ; men: 35 %
      Services: women: 87 % ; men: 59 %
    • POLAND:
      Agriculture: women: 27 %; men: 27 %
      Industry: women: 25 % ; men: 45 %
      Services: women: 48 % ; men: 28 %
    • PORTUGAL:
      Agriculture: women: 45 %; men: 7 %
      Industry: women: 19 % ; men: 54 %
      Services: women: 35 % ; men: 39 %
    • ROMANIA:
      Agriculture: women: 17 %; men: 18 %
      Industry: women: 46 % ; men: 55 %
      Services: women: 37 % ; men: 27 %
    • RUSSIA:
      Agriculture: women: 9 %; men: 17 %
      Industry: women: 35 % ; men: 48 %
      Services: women: 56 % ; men: 34 %
    • SAN MARINO:
      Agriculture: women: ... %; men: ...%
      Industry: women: ... % ; men: ... %
      Services: women: ... % ; men: ... %
    • SLOVAKIA:
      Agriculture: women: 8 %; men: 14 %
      Industry: women: 40 % ; men: 38 %
      Services: women: 51 % ; men: 48 %
    • SLOVENIA:
      Agriculture: women: 4 %; men: 3 %
      Industry: women: 40 % ; men: 53 %
      Services: women: 56 % ; men: 44 %
    • SPAIN:
      Agriculture: women: 6 %; men: 9 %
      Industry: women: 17 % ; men: 43 %
      Services: women: 77 % ; men: 48 %
    • SWEDEN:
      Agriculture: women: 3 %; men: 4 %
      Industry: women: 10 % ; men: 40 %
      Services: women: 88 % ; men: 56 %
    • SWITZERLAND:
      Agriculture: women: 4 %; men: 5 %
      Industry: women: 16 % ; men: 38 %
      Services: women: 81 % ; men: 57 %
    • UKRANIA:
      Agriculture: women: 15 %; men: 23 %
      Industry: women: 34 % ; men: 46 %
      Services: women: 51 % ; men: 31 %
    • UNITED KINGDOM:
      Agriculture: women: 1 %; men: 3 %
      Industry: women: 15 % ; men: 42 %
      Services: women: 84 % ; men: 55 %
    • YUGOSLAVIA:
      Agriculture: women: 29 %; men: 27 %
      Industry: women: 27 % ; men: 39 %
      Services: women: 43 % ; men: 35 %
       
    • Sources: Bureau International du Travail (Nations Unies)

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