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Women in Development Network (WIDNET)
Promoting Gender Equality & Equity


Work - Women's Wages Relative to Men's 

Women's wages in manufacturing as a percentage of men's wages

Table 5e. Women's wages relative to men's
Last update: December 2012
Women's wages in manufacturing as a percentage of men's wages
Country or area Year   % Source
Andorra 2008   71 ARRS
Armenia 2008   61 LRES
Australia 2006 a,b 90 LRES
Austria 2003   62 IR
Azerbaijan 2008   60 LRES
Bahrain 2008 c,d,e 99 IR
Belgium 2007 a 86 LRES
Bermuda 2007   91 LREC
Botswana 2008   55 LRES
Brazil 2002   61 AR
Bulgaria 2007 f 70 LREC
China, Hong Kong SAR 2008 g,h,i 60 LRES
China, Macao SAR 2008 j,k 66 LFS
Colombia 2007 l,m 60 LFS
Costa Rica 2008 a,n 81 LFS
Croatia 2008 o,p 76 LRES
Cyprus 2006 a,q 65 LRES
Czech Republic 2005 h,r 65 LRES
Denmark 2007 a,e,s 87 LRES
Egypt 2007 t,d,h 66 LREC
El Salvador 2008 a,h,u 84 LRES
Finland 2008 v,w 85 LREC
France 2007 a,x 83 ARRS
French Polynesia 2003   87 IR
Georgia 2007   60 LREC
Germany 2008 a 76 LRES
Gibraltar 2007 t,h,y 61 LREC
Hungary 2007 z,v 73 LREC
Iceland 2008 v 72 LRES
Indonesia 2008 a1,b1,c1 68 LFS
Iran, Islamic Rep. of 2002   90 LRES
Ireland 2006 a,h,d,d1 80 LRES
Isle of Man 2008 a 113 LRES
Japan 2008 d,e,e1 61 LRES
Jordan 2008   63 LRES
Kazakhstan 2008   68 LRES
Latvia 2008   81 LRES
Lithuania 2008 a,f1,g1 70 LRES
Luxembourg 2008 b1 70 LREC
Madagascar 2005 a 85 HS
Malta 2008 a,j,c1 89 LFS
Mexico 2008 h1 72 LFS
Mongolia 2008   71 LRES
Myanmar 2008 g,i1,j1 88 LRES
Nepal 1999 n,c1,k1 45 LFS
Netherlands 2005 l1,v 83 LRES
New Zealand 2008 a,m1,v 81 LRES
Norway 2008 v,n1,l1 90 LREC
Occupied Palestinian Territory 2008 o1,c1,p1 50 LFS
Panama 2008 a,j,k,c1 97 LFS
Paraguay 2008   108 LFS
Philippines 2008 i 92 LFS
Portugal 2008   68 LRES
Qatar 2007 a1 142 LFS
Republic of Korea 2007 z 58 LRES
Romania 2007   75 LRES
Saint Helena 2002   72 TR
Saint Lucia 2003 a,b1,q1 81 LRES
Singapore 2008   65 IR
Sri Lanka 2008 a,g,h 81 LRES
Swaziland 2000 e,g,h,r1 57 LREC
Sweden 2008 a,e,h,o,s1 91 LRES
Switzerland 2008 t1 79 LRES
Syrian Arab Republic 2008 g,b1 79 LFS
Thailand 2003 a1 75 LFS
Ukraine 2008   71 LREC
United Kingdom 2008 a,v 83 LFS
United Republic of Tanzania  2001 g,a1 70 LRES
a Refers to earnings per hour.      
b Full-time adult non-managerial employees.       
c All persons engaged        
d Establishments with 10 or more persons employed.      
e Private sector.         
f Employees under labour contract.      
g ISIC-Rev.2 - 3        
h Worker coverage: Wage earners.      
i Refers to wage rates per day.      
j Worker coverage: Total coverage.      
k Median wage.        
l Excl. armed forces.        
m Persons aged 10 years and over.      
n Main occupation.        
o ISIC-Rev.4 - C        
p Excl. employees in craft and trade.       
q Including family allowances and the value of payments in kind.     
r Enterprises with 20 or more employees.       
s Excl. young people aged less than 18 years and trainees.      
t Refers to earnings per week.      
u Urban areas.        
v Full-time employees.        
w Excl. seasonal and end-of-year bonuses.      
x Incl. managerial staff and intermediary occupations.       
y Excl. part-time workers and juveniles.       
z Enterprises with 5 or more persons employed.       
a1 Refers to wage rates per month.      
b1 Worker coverage: Salaried employees.      
c1 Persons aged 15 years and over.      
d1 Wage-earners on adult rates of pay.      
e1 Regular scheduled cash earnings.       
f1 Excl. individual unincorporated enterprises. All employees converted into full-time units. 
g1 All employees converted into full-time units.      
h1 Persons aged 14 years and over.      
i1 Refers to wage rates per hour.      
j1 Regular employees.         
k1 Fluctuations in wages due to small sample size.       
l1 Excl. overtime payments.      
m1 Establishments with the equivalent of more than 0.5 full-time paid employees. Full-time equivalent employees.
n1 Only remuneration in cash.      
o1 Refers to earnings per day.      
p1 Net earnings.        
q1 Unweighted survey results.       
r1 Skilled wage earners.      
s1 Excluding holidays, sick-leave and overtime payments.       
t1 Standardised monthly earnings (40 hours x 4,3 weeks).       
Calculated by the United Nations Statistics Division based on data published by the International Labour Office in Tables 5A Wages, by economic activity and 5B Wages in manufacturing, available from ILO LABORSTA website, http://laborsta.ilo.org.
ARRS   Administrative records and related sources.
LRES    Labour-related establishment survey.
IR        Insurance records.
LREC    Labour-related establishment census.
AR       Administrative reports.
LFS      Labour force survey.
HS       Household survey.
TR       Tax Records.

Technical notes:
The indicator presented in this table is the ratio of female wages to male wages in manufacturing, expressed as a percentage. In general, the wage statistics from which the indicator has been calculated refer to average earnings per month per employee (i.e. wage earners and salaried employees). Where this is not the case, it is indicated by a footnote.
This indicator is useful for tracking the extent of gender parity in wages within manufacturing. International comparisons of the wage ratios presented here, however, must be made with great caution. The coverage, definitions and methods of compiling wage statistics differ significantly from country to country. Weekly, daily and monthly earnings are much dependent on variations in hours of work. In addition, statistics of wage rates do not reflect the influence of changes in wage supplements nor the influence of variations in hours of work. Where female workers generally work a much smaller number of hours than male workers, these factors must be kept in mind when interpreting the wage ratio.
The data on average earnings are usually derived from payroll data supplied by a census or a sample of establishments, which often also furnish data on hours of work and on employment. In some cases, average earnings are compiled from labour force surveys or from a variety of administrative sources including social insurance and tax records.

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